Pan! - Pan and Panmen
The Steelbands of T&T
Pan! - Pan and Panmen - A study of the Steelband
By W Austin Simmonds (1959)
5 x 8 - 20Pg Booklet
Pan! - Pan and Panmen
A surprisingly concise yet authoritative note to pan history; for so short a document.
An intriguing flash-cube into the past; one wonders at the influence of this well organised pamphlet on the mind of Dr Felix Blake who, 35 years later, was to set the history of the steelpan to larger and much expanded print, yet closely aligned it to this ordered theme of Simmonds.
Simmonds' references to Asian culture (among others) are particularly strong, inferring close associations with this culture, perhaps assisted by his closeness to Samuel ( See later note from Blake's extract on Samuel - Included ). We are reminded here that the drums Taza are the same we call Tassa today.
Reference to the "Mussel-Rat" story of rhythmic pan origins; listings of some contributions made by 'Ellie' Manette; reminders to us of the debt we owe to Beryl McBurnie; an indicator that the 3 & 4 cello pans were still for the future; and notes of the first Steelband Music Festival, with a slight (but now obvious) bias towards a deserving Casablanca Steel Orchestra.
A little bit, but understandably so for the period, 'off the track' with the comment ..."steelband music can only be played, and not written."; but much more 'on the mark' with ..."there is the striving towards perfection, coupled with the creation of a new music."
The curious comment '- their story is thirteen years old -' makes one wonder what it was that Ivy M. Lawrence, Resident tutor, makes reference to in 1946? - melodic pan?
Edited and presented here as part of The Histories reference data base for The Steelbands (Pan) of Trinidad and Tobago Web site.[x] Square brackets delineate and number the end of each page for reference purposes.
JGdeB August 2004 (eEd)
Pan! - Paper published with no © 1959 to W Austin Simmonds; Over-printed light gloss thin 8 x 10 cream Bristol-board; 5 incerted pages of the same size; two staples on the fold.
Reprinted as Birth of the Steelband in the secondary school textbook Language for Living; Edited by Cecil Gray and Alan Gilchrist; Longmans Caribbean, 1974.
www.seetobago.com (now www.seetobago.org) wishes to thank Dr Jeannine Remy for the loan of her slightly 'moth-eaten' booklet here displayed.
Remy declares "An 'old boy' from Invaders came up to me one day when I was practicing the band [WSMF2004], and said smilingly 'You should have this', pointing to the section 'Ellie' Manette, next to which was penned the note (MUSIC)."
"Imagine" she continued "He hung on to this thing for 34 odd years, and gave it to me with the hope that T&T pan history, and in his case Invaders history, would get wider and more accurate coverage to 'the people'; than this booklet alone implied".
(A study of the Steelband)
by W. AUSTIN SIMMONDS
Sponsored by the Department of Extra-Mural Studies (Trinidad and Tobago), University College of The West Indies, and produced by Shell Trinidad Limited, to accompany the exhibition on 'PAN' in cement sculpture by Raphael 'Boy Blue' Samuel.
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THIS brochure on Pan and Panmen of Trinidad has been written by W. Austin Simmonds at the request of the Department of Extra Mural Studies (Trinidad and Tobago) University College of The West Indies, to accompany the Exhibit on Pan in cement sculpture by Raphael 'Boy Blue' Samuel.
'Will' Simmonds has lived among Panmen, has been the friend and adviser to 'the boys' in the hills of Laventille. When the figures in cement sculpture telling the story of Pan overflowed the small 'under the house' room where the artist Samuel works, 'Will' turned over a room in his own crowded home for the storage of the completed pieces. It was felt that the story to accompany this exhibit, unusual both in form and content, should be written by Will Simmonds.
The story of the growth of steelband music is fast be coming part of the folklore of this Island. When history merges into folklore, the versions are many. There will be those who will disagree, who will wish to comment, who will want to add to what has been said in this brief account. It is right that they should. It is right that this new music culture, which had its birth and has its future in Trinidad, should come into the realm of serious study, discussion and even intellectual controversy.
Samuel has told his story with his hands, Simmonds tells his with his pen. The Panmen are a vital part of Trinidad life their story is thirteen years old and endless.
IVY M. LAWRENCE, Resident Tutor.::[4 - blank]
THERE are thousands of 'Panmen' whose names it has been impossible to mention in this booklet. Certain persons, by their creativeness or ingenuity, have introduced techniques that have been milestones along the road that the Steelband has thus far travelled. These must, of necessity, be mentioned by name. But I have compiled the data set forth in this short study, bearing constantly in mind, and more often than not being helped by, a few of those thousands who have lived 'Pan', who have been able to contribute to the development of this cultural pattern, who have filled a need for musical expression in our people, who have devoted thousands of hours to practice, striving to attain an elusive perfection of 'Pan'. To those persons, and to Raphael who tells their story with his hands, I humbly dedicate this work.
W. AUSTIN SIMMONDS.
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THE Steelband is essentially Trinidad. That is, it expresses in musical originality what is obvious to the most casual observer a heterogeneous admixture of the musical cultures of peoples of many races. This could only have developed in a country where the people of all racial and national differences dwell together in unity. The result therefore is Trinidadian as distinct from anything else a musical culture which owes all to everybody and yet in a broader sense owes nothing to anybody. The story of the Steelband is the story of rhythm drum rhythm. Little is known about the cultural life or artistic achievements of the first people of the Caribbean, the native Ciboney, Carib and Arawak who did not long survive the invasion of the imperial powers. The Negro slave was brought into the Caribbean to supply the cheap labour necessary to sustain a colonial economy and with him was introduced for the first time the drum rhythms of Africa.
Among the slaves transported from Africa to Trinidad were a considerable number from the Yoruba and Madingo nations. These two nations worshipped a common god Shango, Lord of thunder and lightning. It must not be forgotten that the whole of the Belgian Congo was evangelised in the 15th century by Portuguese friars, was vehemently Christian for two centuries, and then reverted to the native religion. This form of pagan worship with its definite Christian influence on ritual was introduced to Trinidad by these slaves, and it is in this context that one must try to understand the worship of Shango as practised in Trinidad today. The singing of native and Christian songs and anthems to the jungle rhythm of Shango drummers now becomes understandable. No comment or implications are to be  inferred from this statement regarding our local festivals. The reason for mentioning this at all is the fact, the incontrovertible fact, that the majority of our original and present-day drummers steel, bamboo, and others have been and still are in some way or other connected to the 'Shango Feast'. It is therefore not really considered by them blasphemous or even controversial when they, at Christmas-time, drum carols and anthems to the rhythms that have by now identified themselves with 'the Spirit of Trinidad'. This is simply Trinidad celebrating the birth of the Saviour in the admissible joyous way, out of which comes Oh little town of Bethlehem in road-march tempo.
The East Indians
After the upsurge of belated conscience-searching which resulted in the abolition of slavery, some other method of sustaining the colonial economy had to be found. Thus originated the equally infamous scheme of indentured labourers. Several types of peoples were brought to Trinidad under this scheme Portuguese, Chinese, East Africans but those which were most malleable were the East Indians. These were indentured only after they had been guaranteed the preservation of their customs, including their religions, national way of dressing, etc. Hinduism, being not only a religion, but a way of life, was thus guaranteed future influence on the developing culture-patterns of the Trinidadian. None of us who has paid any attention to the festivals of the Indians in our community can fail to grasp the importance of the several drums to the interpretation of their folk-tales by dancers, theirs being a music particularly adapted to and dominated by percussion instruments cymbals, bells, the dhantals and the drum. 
And so the stage was set for the emergence of this wonderful, peculiar and totally new type of drum music. The Indians, although a minority group, contributed more than might have been expected, for while the Negro had to practice his Shango-worship until recently under legal restrictions, the Indian had his guarantee of national privileges. And so one notes the strange fact that at Indian weddings and festivals there may be found Negro drummers but I have yet to be told of an Indian drummer at a Shango feast.
Carnival has been another important factor in the emergence of the Steelband. At this unique national fete, bands of masqueraders take to the streets, some- times many hundred strong, jumping and dancing to the tunes of the current road march. In years gone by, there was the famous, but now all but dead, 'Tamboo-Bamboo' band. The musicians of these bands made rhythmic music by knocking pieces of bamboo in a truly startling cacophony of sound to the remarkable accompaniment of the chanting and singing of the crowd of merrymakers. The instruments of this band were of well-cured lengths of specially cut bamboo. It is said that they had to be cut in the full of the moon and the owners were as proud of them as Heifetz of his violin. Each had its own pitch ranging from the long, wide and heavy bass bamboo to the small, light strips known as cutters. A full Tamboo-Bamboo band was comprised of at least five basses, three chandlers, seven fullers and four cutters. Nostalgic indeed are the memories of such tunes as Leggo the Lion, Ambakaila and Ho-ray, Ho-ray, and the early morning chipping of feet that took more than an hour to move two hundred yards. Such was the Tamboo-Bamboo one of the parents of the modern Steelband. 
'Bottle and Spoon' still awakens many memories in Trinidad. At parties and 'fetes' in private homes, after the beverages had been drunk from the bottles it, became the custom to refill the bottles with water. Then the bottle was struck rhythmically with a spoon. These sounds, harmonising with the chanting of popular songs or calypsoes soon became the means of expressing pent-up musical feelings of a people deprived of the right to make free use of their natural means of self-expression. Thus the 'bottle and spoon' for minor occasions, and the Tamboo-Bamboo for major ones, became the visible feature of a slowly diversifying evolution of a distinct musical-culture pattern of the third and fourth generation Trinidad-negro.
Drums from India
To understand the true influence of the Indian drums on the steelband, one has first of all to try to understand the significance of the art of drumming in the scheme of Indian music-art expression. To the Indian, in order to create something beautiful and to give it a physical aspect, he must develop a technique. Technique to their way of thinking is the same as discipline. Thus in ancient days, to be a musician or dancer was the same as to be 'yogin'. Religion was beautiful art was the expression of beauty, therefore art in all its forms became a fundamental factor in all religious rites and ceremonies.
From the point of view of sheer physical exertion involved and even from the point of view of spiritual labour, Indian dance is the most demanding of all the arts. In dance, the body has to become so non-physical that those who behold forget the body as a physical entity and are entranced by the art as expressed by the body. Dance has been described by the Indian as the music of the body. In Indian music there is not only  'tala', which is 'yoga' or control and discipline, but also 'laya', which is the rhythm within the 'tala'. And rhythm, which in music is the dance of the emotions, is also the dance of sound. The Indian believes that the moment art music and dance in particular is made personal it becomes degraded for then it expresses sensuality. In music, a musician may like to show off, but this is fatal, for in art one does not exhibit the artist, but the art.
When viewed from such an understanding of the unconscious psychological approach to music of the Indian one begins to comprehend the otherwise strange fact that as a background-man, (rhythm-man) the Trinidadian-Indian is unexcelled, although often unnoticed. But there has yet to be an Indian first-pan player of any excellence.
Instrumental ability is not the only influence the Indian has made upon or contributed to the evolution of our national music. In the religious festivals of 'Hosein' and 'Ramdilla' the goatskin-covered 'Taza' plays an important role. The 'Taza' takes its place in the world of Steelband as will be seen when the different types of pans are discussed later.
Bamboo to Pan
The first record of a steel container being used as a musical instrument in Trinidad is to be had from the memories of the men who were in The Lime Grove in Gonzales, one of the suburbs of Port of Spain. Some time in early '45, 'the boys' were beating a little 'bamboo'. One of the bass-bamboos burst, and a resulting gap in the rhythm was filled by the accidental striking of the gas tank of an old chassis in the yard. The person who by this accident started a chain of events that has far-reaching consequences is still known  by the humorously quaint sobriquet Mussel-Rat. He was a bass-bamboo man of no mean proportions, and on realising that the note of the empty gas-tank filled the breach left by the bursting of the bamboo, he kept on stroking the tank.
May 6, 1945 the night of Victory in Europe adds another chapter to the story. The sirens were blowing, the populace had been promised a 'jump-up' to celebrate Victory and the end of hostilities in Europe. After five years and eight months, once more the call to Carnival was heard. But the forces of Hitler's Germany were surrendering too fast for the celebrants to gather all their gear for the fete. Thus they were caught unprepared bamboos not all cut, far less cured, for the road march. But Trinidadian celebrants will not be daunted. Official celebrations ought to have started at seven o'clock on the morning of the eighth, after the appropriate 'Thanksgiving Service'. But no sooner had the sirens hooted the joyful news than a huge crowd gathered as if by magic around the portals of 'Hell-Yard', traditional headquarters of the Tamboo-bambooists of down-town Port-of-Spain. To the strains of Five years and eight months we ent play no mas' the boys took off on 'a rounds' of the city. Old bamboos from former occasions were hauled from under the houses. But, their usefulness long since exhausted, they soon began to burst. As each was discarded, the jubilant revellers took up whatever came to hand, preferably something metallic for the tones and vibrations necessary to keep the original rhythm and tempo of the bamboo. Squads of police, called out to put an end to the noisy contravention of defence regulations, soon appeared on the scene. But it seemed that they too were intoxicated by the sense of relief from the pressures of  of war. They took a lenient though firm view, and instructed the revellers to parade 'Behind the Bridge'. Thus it was that from the rhythmic beat of old pots, pans, garbage cans, bamboos and the chanting of the famous Victory Road March the first ever Steelband was born.
The Tune Emerges
By the end of the week, 'Fish-Eye' of the famous 'Hell Yard' had discovered that by bending a piece of reinforcement steel in a certain way and suspending it triangle-wise from his thumb, he could produce the tune of the first line of Mary had a little lamb. By further experimenting, other tunes could soon be beaten out on this piece of steel.
The first true 'pan' to be used by bandsmen was the empty biscuit container. This was hung around the' neck, open end away from the beating hand. The other, or sealed end, was struck rhythmically with the edge of the open palm or the closed fist. Thus the whoomp whoomp! whoomp, whoomp, whoomp! was the main feature in a band that soon began to beat garbage-can covers, aluminium milk pails and highly tempered bits of steel in a strange cacophony of sound that was new, contagious and indeed Trinidad searching, albeit unconsciously, for a music of its own.
The next development in this intensely exciting period was the discovery that when one hammers a paint pan from the inside outwards, leaving the bum[p]s and hollows of the hammer, different sounds could be obtained. It was not long afterwards that the length of bent steel (by now called the Ping-Pong) gave way to the pan that could produce simple melodies.
By the end of 1945, different bands had developed different 'beats'. The initiated could, by the rhythm  and 'Ping-Pong', distinguish what band 'was beating pan' whether 'Hell Yard', 'John-John', 'Desperadoes' or 'Bar-20'.
And into Steelband history came the Taza of the Indian Festival when 'Scribo' Maloney of Bar-20 hanged a sawed-off pan around his middle, and with a pair of drum-sticks, rolled his famous 'cut-and-tumble' beat. By V-J Day, Bar-20 was the most talked-about Steelband. Members included 'Batman' Anderson, 'Scribo' Maloney, 'Red Ozzie' Campbell, 'Big Dick' Barker, 'Red Pops' Smith, 'Battersby', 'Long Grant', 'Big-Head John' Pierre and his brother 'Bitter-man'. The boys experimented, improvised and played, cussed into practising at least four hours a day by 'Bajan Muriel' White, the 'mother' to them all.
The early summer months of 1945 had seen keen rivalry developing between the bands, and this was especially keen between the Hell-Yard boys and those from John-John. It is said that someone from John-John stole the treasured piece of steel belonging to 'Fish Eye' of Hell Yard and carried it 'Behind the Bridge'. 'Fish-Eye' could not go alone to John-John to recover his treasure, so he collected a 'side'. The resulting clash was first in a series of 'Band wars' that resulted in the stigma of hooliganism being attached to all steelbandsmen and from which they are only now beginning to free themselves.
Trinidad, like. every other country in the world, was caught up in the whirlwind of juvenile delinquency and hooliganism that seemed to come in the wake of the peace. In Trinidad, the eye of the wind seemed to be the steelband. Having to practise clandestinely, the  Steelbandsmen attracted to their backyards and hideouts that element which is always attracted to anything clandestine or illegal. Some of these hangers-on actually at times 'beat pan' but were seldom to be counted among those who played music. Thus occurred the curious phenomenon that during many of the clashes the Steelbandsmen would continue to play while fights, riots and general mayhem were taking place all around them. For playing pan is an absorbing, exclusive and serious business. In nine cases out of ten the Steel-musician is completely oblivious to all that goes on around him, except the all-important beat of the rhythm-section of the band.
The man who brought the Steelband from social ostracism to the threshold of respectability was 'Ellie' Manette. He wrapped his drumstick with strips of rubber and, cutting the top of an oil-drum off at a length of about eight inches, marked or 'seamed' this pan with a number of radii, all equi-distant at the circumference of the pan. He found that, by tapping these notes, his pans could be tuned. Thus, with all the notes emanating from a common centre and produced by a rubberised drum-stick, was created the first liquid, piano pedalled, sensuous rhythmic lyricism that still permeates the music of the Steelband, and is, in fact, its very essence. 'Ellie', who has been immortalised in calypso and steelband folklore, and his brothers gathered a group and taught them 'Ellie's' technique. This band became the famous Invaders Steelband, and was for a not inconsiderable period the leader of the steelband movement. It was typical that Beryl McBurnie was one of the first to realise what was really happening. Through an understanding nurtured by the difficult days of the Little Carib and an inborn feeling and love for all  that. is truly Trinidad, Beryl brought into her world of dance the Invaders Steelband. They appeared at the Little Carib with the Governor of Trinidad in the audience. What was good enough for the Governor was good enough for Trinidad society the steelbandsmen was accepted as an entertainer of class.
Pans by this time had really developed into instruments. In the rhythm section there was first of all the bass or tuned-boom. This consisted of three or four (today there are as many as six [ re1959 - eEd ]) full-sized forty-four gallon oil drums. These are cut off at the bottom or bung end and the top stretched by beating into a convex shape. The 'notes' are then marked and 'seamed' with a hammer and cold chisel. The pan is then burned and when considered to be just right by the tuner, oil is thrown upon it. This tempers the steel and the pan is now ready to be tuned. It is really an education in itself to have the privilege of seeing a master tuner at work. The concentration, the rapt devotion, the final ecstasy as the last touch is given and the pan pronounced perfect this taken with the controlled use of the tuning instruments (a small tinker's hammer and a two pound sledge) become a marvel of poetry in motion.
Next in tone range is the cello-pan. This is somewhat like the boom, but rather shorter, and whereas the booms have three or four notes each, this has five or six. Generally cello-pans are played hooked in pairs to give the player more scope for chording. There are also guitar-pans that have fourteen notes each. Sometimes these are also played in pairs. Then there is the queen of them all the sweet Ping-Pong. This is a steel-drum cut to about six or seven inches of the top. After these are stretched, and tempered, between twenty-six and thirty-two notes are marked and tuned. A steelband is  made up of any of the combinations of these pans. The variety of combinations is, of course, almost infinite, and so consequently are the arrangements of any tune.
Soon, leading Trinidadians became aware that something was taking place which no amount of sneers, ridicule or infamous labelling could stop. It was decided that the efforts of the individuals should be co-ordinated into what was the forerunner of the present Steelband Association. To this end a committee was set up to organise the first island-wide steelband competition. This was 1950.
Concerto in Pan
Came the night of the performance. The Grandstand of the Trinidad Turf Club at the Grand Savannah was packed to capacity. Some came to wonder, some to jeer, some because there was nothing else to do, and some to listen.
Bands played what everybody expected calypsoes, road-marches, even a few sentimental ballads. The final item on the programme was Casablanca Steel Orchestra. They were a long time in setting up their pans. Rafael 'Boy Blue' Samuel, of East Indian parentage with what was probably the first tuned bass-pan; Baron Arrieta, Venezuelan by birth; Fitzroy 'Gaga' James, biggest man on the 'side'; Roland 'Pepi le Moko' Paul, the dandy dresser; Philmore 'Boots' Davison of the size 11½ shoes, all on the second or counter-melody pans; Fred 'Lill Bit' Hackshaw, midget in size, giant. in ability; Orman 'Patsy' Haines, soloist and specialist in first-pan technique, these on first pans, and finally Arthur de Coteau, with a piece of a motor-car hub.
The first piece was The Bells of St Mary's. The hub-cap, chiming so softly that no one was really aware of just when it actually started, swelled in volume until  the whole Grandstand was full of it; the bass pans getting into the chimes and giving them the peculiar Steelband rhythm; the first pans taking the melody from there; the second pans with a counter-melody of their own, being appreciated, being warmly recognisable, but above all highlighting and complementing the melody of the first pans. At the end there was a long sigh as though the collective breath of the audience was released, then silence. Someone started to clap soon the whole audience broke into wild cheers. The sedate, the patronising, the doubtful were convinced. All were shouting for More! More!! More!!! Revelling in the glory of the minute, Russell Manning, the bandleader, lifted his arms. The crowd grew still. A slight movement of the fingers the response of the band and jaws fell open in amazement. People looked at one another in wonderment. For here in Trinidad, by musicians who knew not a single note of written music, was a most professional arrangement of Chopin's Nocturne in E Flat. The audience followed the nimble-fingered boys in rapt silence and attention. The Steelbandsman was accepted as a musician.
The Chinese Influence
What was achieved that night in the Savannah was soon felt all over the island. The harshness of the Southern Symphony Steelband disappeared almost over-night. Steel was being played in places as far apart as Toco and Icacos, Guayaguayare and Blanchisseuse. Tobago had its several bands. 1950-51 was indeed the Year of the Steelband.
People throughout the Caribbean accepted the music of the Steelband with their senses; it was not as easy to accept with their minds. Tuned to a traditional, albeit adopted, thinking to European  standards of music, to an accepted and therefore unalterable musical scale they themselves were frequently out of resonance. There are certain half-notes and shades of tone reminiscent of, but not quite the same as, the flattened fifth of American jazz. A certain off-colour that is peculiarly intriguing to the western- trained ear and which is really inexplicable unless one listens to it remembering V-J day in Trinidad. That was Victory over Japan Day, the Trinidad-Chinese came out in force to 'fete'. For the first time Trinidad saw the traditional Dance of the Lion, and heard the Chinese musical accompaniment of cymbals. It was not long before the Steelbandsmen were drawing musical caricatures of the Chinese and their celebrations. But unconsciously something appealed to their sense of musical appreciation. Into the music of Trinidad was infused something of the oriental to intrigue and bedevil contemporary writers of musical arrangements, who of course had already discovered that steelband music can only be played, and not written.
A New Scale?
Has Trinidad indeed devised a new musical scale? The answer lies in the future but maybe the not too distant future. This the bandsmen of Trinidad know full well that what happened could only have happened in Trinidad and that while steelbands may play throughout the Caribbean, at the Brussels Fair, in far away countries, and even on American naval ships the future of steelband music is in the hands of those who gave it birth.
One knows only this that in order to understand fully the story of the Pan, one must understand the Panmen, who drew their music from every source that is Trinidadian. Go into the Hills of Laventille, into the backyards of San Fernando and St James, into that  ghetto of labyrinthine mazes known as Shanty Town. There, without knowing it, without having any 'ism' on the label of its search, there is the striving towards perfection, coupled with the creation of a new music.
The pan-man has seen the pioneers of this movement achieve a certain measure of recognition. He has been accepted as a musician. And so his faith in the future is firm knowing that soon he must be accepted as an individual.
This then is the short story of the Steelband of Pans and Panmen. Here at this exhibition we see the work of one of the midwives at the birth of the Steelband Raphael 'Boy Blue' Samuel. In his own words, This is something that the younger generation of Panmen know nothing of. This is something that the people of Trinidad are not aware of. When I think of it, I want to do something. I work with my hands. This is the culmination of ten years of thinking, looking and learning and ten months of trying to say with my hands what I have seen with my eyes and felt within my soul.
A nation that aspires to greatness does honour to its creative arts and artists. For us to be a people without doing so is to be a people untrue to ourselves. Let us try to be worthy of that aim and therefore honour the first real Trinidadian creator-artist, the Panman and the art that he has given to us Pan. 
NOTE ABOUT THE SCULPTOR [ BACK to Top ]
Raphael Boy Blue Samuel
ONE cannot talk about the origin of the steelband Casablanca without mentioning Raphael Boy Blue Samuel. One of Casablanca's stalwarts, Samuel, of East Indian descent, played the biscuit drum and the dudup. He was one of the most popular of Casablanca's bandsmen and was noted for keeping time on the 'iron'.
Besides being a panman, Boy Blue was also a sculptor in cement on the theme of pan and panmen. He actually exhibited some of his work. It was an occasion marked by the outstanding contribution of another pan devotee, W. Austin Will Simmonds. Simmonds' Pan. The Story of the Steelband was written in 1959 at the request of the Extra Mural Department of the University (College) of the West Indies, to accompany Boy Blue Samuel's exhibition. Simmonds has recorded Samuel's own words on the exhibition,
This is something that the younger generation of panmen know nothing of. This is something that the people of Trinidad are not aware of. When I think of it, I want to do something. I work with my hands. This is the culmination of ten years of thinking, looking and learning and ten months of trying to say with my hands what I have seen with my eyes and felt within my soul.FROM: STALWARTS OF THE STEEL PAN MOVEMENT
© 1995 Dr Felix Blake: Pg 256; THE TRINIDAD and TOBAGO STEEL PAN. History and Evolution
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Historic Update: 11 January 2008; Last Update: 29 June 2014 00:46:00 TT
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